What Is Information Theory?

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Information theory is a branch of mathematics that defines efficient and practical methods by which data can be exchanged and interpreted. The concept originated in a mid-twentieth-century essay by a mathematician named Claude Shannon, which set many important precedents for digital technology, including using bits as units of measurement. Shannon's work was based on several earlier attempts to define information in mathematical terms. The earliest known effort occurred in 1848 when German physicist Heinrich Hertz attempted to quantify the energy contained in electromagnetic waves. In 1923, American engineer Ralph Hartley attempted to define information as "the negative logarithm of the probability" that would receive a message would receive a letter correctly. These early attempts led to the development of an abstract mathematical theory based on the idea that each possible message has an associated probability distribution over possible symbols and that these distributions can be represented as sets of probabilities (or, more generally, sets over cardinality). These distributions from a mathematical structure called an alphabet can be used as input for any encoding scheme or output for any decoding scheme. Before Claude Shannon came along, electronic communication had many things that could have been improved. It could have been more secure, and it could have been more efficient. You see, back in the day, we used analog transmission to communicate, meaning that information was transmitted as a series of waves or pulses. While that worked okay in short distances, it didn't cut it when you wanted to go long distances. The signals would degrade and become unreliable. So Claude Shannon got to work on improving electronic communication during World War II at Bell Labs (the research and development arm of the Bell Telephone Company). He figured out how to get around those problems—and now we all have super-fast internet connections!

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Related Terms by Communication And Collaboration Software

Cipher Block Chaining (CBC)

Are you prepared to "chain" yourself to the subject of Cipher Block Chaining (CBC)? It's a method of encrypting information that's used to help keep data safe, and despite how dull it may sound, it's pretty fascinating! CBC, or "block chaining," is a method for encrypting data. This method gets its name because it operates by first dividing the data into blocks and then chaining them together. The output of one block is used as the input for the subsequent block, meaning each block must be encrypted using a unique secret key. Because of this, it is significantly more difficult for potential attackers to decode the data since they would need to crack the encryption for each block in the chain. The CBC algorithm needs to be foolproof, as it has weaknesses that can be exploited by malicious actors, such as when they use padding attacks or other similar techniques. But in general, it is a reliable method for encrypting data. It is used extensively in various contexts, including SSL/TLS protocols, virtual private networks (VPNs), and disc encryption. You may be questioning why we must use encryption in the first place. Consider all the sensitive information, like credit card numbers, login credentials, personal messages, and more, that we send and receive over the internet. If someone with bad intentions were to obtain access to such information, they could put it to any number of unethical uses if they so chose. Even if unauthorized parties receive our data, encryption can ensure that it will remain secure and confidential. Cipher Block Chaining may not be the most exciting topic, but it is crucial for everyone who cares about security and privacy. That is all there is to it, folks; I hope you found this information useful. #CBC #Encryption #Cybersecurity #DataPrivacy #SSL #TLS #VPN #DiskEncryption

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Cloud Migration

Cloud migration can be confusing and intimidating, but it doesn't have to be! If you're ready to take the plunge and go cloud, there are a few things you need to know. First: what is going cloud? Cloud migration is partially or entirely deploying an organization's digital assets, services, IT resources or applications to the cloud. The migrated assets are accessible behind the cloud's firewall. Second: what happens when you migrate? When migrating to the cloud, you'll be using new tools and software that operate on top of an infrastructure platform managed by someone else. Migrating means changing your systems, processes and workflows to be compatible with these new tools and software. Third: why should I go? Going cloud can help businesses stay more agile and efficient by reducing costs while scaling globally without maintaining physical servers in each location. It also allows them to focus their resources on what matters most—their customers! Cloud migration is a term used to describe the process of moving a business' infrastructure to the cloud. The goal of this transition is to reduce costs and increase efficiency. A cloud service provider manages all aspects of the cloud environment, including setup, maintenance and security. Cloud-based applications are available through a web browser or mobile device so that you can access them anytime. Cloud computing is the future. It's already here. It's about scaling your business quickly and easily without worrying about the infrastructure that makes it all happen. It's about managing your entire operation from any device, anywhere in the world; whether you're at home or on the road, you can keep an eye on everything that's going on back at headquarters. It's about saving money—because cloud computing is cheaper than traditional hosting options. In short: Cloud computing is fantastic! Why not if you're not already using it in your business?

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Carrier IQ

If your phone company knows more about you than you do, it's probably Carrier IQ. Carrier IQ is a company that provides analytics software to various telecom providers. They've developed programs that offer information about smartphone users to cellphone carriers, like what apps they use, how often they use them, how long they spend on them, and even where the user is using them. The problem with this is that there needs to be a way for an average user to know whether or not her carrier has installed these programs on her phone. Even if she knows that her page uses the Carrier IQ program, she cannot opt out of it or stop it from collecting data about her activities and movements. The fact that this kind of information is being collected without our knowledge or consent raises serious privacy concerns—yet we have no say in whether or not our carriers can do this. Privacy advocates are up in arms over the Carrier IQ scandal, which involves a company collecting performance data on smartphone users. Carrier IQ gathers performance data, tracking and logging what users do on their phones. This can include calls made, texts sent, and emails received. While this is not necessarily an invasion of privacy in terms of content (e.g., Carrier IQ does not have access to the actual content of phone calls), it does present a risk to user privacy because it allows third parties access to information about whom you called or texted, whether you're using your phone to browse the web or send emails, etc. The issue came to light when reports revealed that Carrier IQ had collected information about users' phone activity without their knowledge or consent. It was reported that some phones were even sending data from users' text messages directly to Carrier IQ without permission from the device's owner!

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