Computing
Welcome The New Age With Quantum Computing
By TechDogs
Overview
We think that technological advancements that appear (or disappear) have a real impact on our lives  and also on movies. So, sometimes technologies make their way into our lives through movies. Think of movies from your favorite production houses such as Marvel Cinematic Universe or from science fiction directors such as Quentin Tarantino and Christopher Nolan. The ideas that their awesome movies show are inspired by technologies that are not yet real.
However, in this blog we are talking about one such technology that has been a goto staple favorite for many directors, storytellers and writers – Quantum Computing.
Yes, this one actually exists! We are going to cover the what, why, how, when and where of Quantum Computing in this introductory article. So, hang on tight and dive into the quantum realm!
Thanks to the constant discussion and portrayal of technologies in movies, has consequently increased the attention of the public towards such terms. One of the best examples would be Quantum Computing and its related technological applications. The real essence of Quantum Computing is that it helps in extracting probable potential solutions to complex problems and challenges based on quantum physics. Quantum Computing involves qubits unlike the traditional binary computer bits (0s & 1s); hence, the computation performed by a quantum computer is much different.
Unlike classical computers, quantum computers can store much more information and utilize efficient algorithms for operations, thereby completing extremely complex tasks more quickly. The goal of Quantum Computing is to achieve possibly the greatest performance boost in technological history! The idea is to use quantum physics principles to break down some of the barriers that limit the speed of existing computers.
Fun fact: The Global Quantum Computing market would be worth $949 million by 2025 but there is still a lot to be explored and innovated in the area. If we are to believe the technologists, the potential of quantum mechanicsbased computing is huge and can become a point of breakthrough in various fields such as medicine, cybersecurity, finance, cryptography and Artificial Intelligence (AI).
So, let us explore this technology and see how it originated and where it is heading. So, what is the exact technology? Let’s take a #QuantumLeap and find out!
What Is Quantum Computing?
Just a few decades ago, when personal computers were launched, they definitely skyrocketed across homes and offices, improving all the possibilities of what could be done. A couple of years after that, even the most complex work could be done on computers, made possible across domains to make its usage more prevalent. Then came a time when the need arose to resolve challenges more quickly and accurately. Enter, Quantum Computing!
Fundamentally, the principles of physics that govern individual atoms, electrons and elementary particles are referred to as "quantum" laws; since they are at a very microscopic level, the laws behave very differently. Quantum Computing utilizes these various physics, manipulates and controls them to perform various tasks i.e., computation, which our computers (digital) cannot perform on such short timescales.
Confused? Let’s understand it this way – our regular computers use transistors, which work with zeros and ones, individually. Now Quantum Computing enables computers to work with both zeros and ones at the same time for computation. The output derived is from calculating the probabilities for many possible alternatives simultaneously making it much faster.
There are two basic features of quantum physics on which Quantum Computing works  superposition and entanglement. The phenomenon in which both zeros and ones are used at the same time for computation is called the superposition of quantum states. This gives the quantum system the ability to perform several calculations and compute possibilities in various directions at the same time.
Whereas entanglement is the correlation that exists between quantum particles which is very strong and helps in linking two or more particles irrespective of how far they are. These laws in combination allow Quantum Computing to perform synchronized calculations and extract the results much faster and more accurately. Now that we understand what it is, let us look at how the concept of Quantum Computing evolved.
Evolution Of Quantum Computing
When the Turing machine was developed, none had thought it would have such an impact on modernday technology. Interesting in knowing how the Turing Machine had a role to play in Quantum Computing?
1980s – 1990s: In the year 1980, the field of Quantum Computing emerged. It was noticed that some of the computational difficulties may possibly be tackled more effectively with quantum algorithms than with their traditional counterparts. This is when physicist Paul Benioff suggested that these difficulties of computation can be resolved through quantum mechanics. It was then in 1981, Nobelwinning physicist Richard Feynman coined the term “quantum computer" for the machine that works on quantum algorithms and can compute with higher accuracy.
In 1985, physicist David Deutsch helped in mapping how a quantum computer would operate. He created a blueprint that strengthened the emerging industry that we see today. In the year 1994, mathematician Peter Shor wrote an algorithm that could help in utilizing quantum computers’ power to break various levels of encryptions.
1990s – Early 2000s: In the years 1994 to 1996, individual propositions were made towards an algorithm for the quantum computer which was capable of simulating quantummechanical systems. In the year, 1997, Dwave systems were founded and after 10 more years, the first commercial quantum computer was released.
Late 2000s  Present Date: In 2010, Google teamed up with NASA to try out DWave’s hardware and to fund the lab in which it would take place. In the year 2016, IBM placed a couple of its quantum processor prototypes on the internet, which allowed programmers to write and develop quantum codes on an opensource model.
To this date, a couple of more startups have also stepped into this space and have opened their quantum computer fabrication facility. The idea behind it is to build prototype hardware that can help in bringing the full potential of this technology. Now you know about evolution, it is now the right time to learn about its working.
How Quantum Computing Technology Works?
We do understand that it might come across as a tough topic for most of us. Also, trust us when we say this – to understand Quantum Computing, we do not have to indulge in a lot of technicalities, just a few fundamental concepts will help you. So, let us begin to understand the working of the technology of Quantum Computing.
Now, computation done through Quantum Computing accompanies a few important concepts. This includes:

Qubits
We all know that conventional computers are built on bits (read 0s & 1s). Qubits or quantum bits are the basics unit on which quantum computer works. This term was coined by Benjamin Schumacher in one of his papers in 1995. Now, these qubits follow quantum mechanics algorithms to perform and can function in two states, unlike their traditional counterparts. These two states essentially are coherent in superposition and it can be in those states(1 and 0) at the same time. This property of qubits is vital for Quantum Computing.

Superposition
Another important principle of quantum mechanics is superposition. It is the state in which these qubits can be present as 0 or 1 or as a combination of both, at the same time. This means that all the possible combinations with respect to any given information can coexist at once, such as Dr. Strange being able to visit multiple separate universes that coexist at the same time!

Entanglement
As the name suggests, it is the correlation between two qubits. Now, when one qubit changes, it impacts or changes the other connected qubit, which allows for solving complex problems easily and faster. For example, if one qubit is 1, the other qubit can be entangled to be 0.
We hope the explanation of these phenomena would have given you a clearer picture. There are various experiments conducted to understand if there could be another principle of quantum mechanics that can solve or explain even more in detail about Quantum Computing and take it to the next level  none has been discovered yet. Anyhow, let us now tell you all about why Quantum Computing is needed!
What Is The Need For Quantum Computing?
Isn’t it the milliondollar question? Surely, even when analog watches were made, someone would have asked the same question – what is the need for digital watches? Think of the moment when someone would have proposed the idea of these newage smartwatches. Every technological advancement that takes place brings along two basic questions – one, “what is the need?” and another, “what does the future behold?”
We will be discussing both in the next section! #CoveredAllYourDoubts
Although any and every technology brings along a roadmap of its successor, the answer to “why would it be needed" only unfolds with time. The same is the case with this technology. Computers (then Turing machines) were working fine. However, curiosity arose and testing was done to improve and augment the current level of technology. Similarly, Quantum Computing is a way to enhance or modify the capabilities that exist currently. It will likely not replace traditional computers but open many doors to new applications. Interesting isn’t it?
However, what is its actual advantage? Let’s have a look at a few of them!
Advantages Of Quantum Computing

Fast And Accurate
The computation done through Quantum Computing is faster as compared to the traditional one and also more accurate. This is because the feedback obtained is the result of calculating the probabilities for numerous possible alternatives at the same time, while it is done parallelly in traditional binary computers.

Solves Complex Problems
Superposition and entanglement play a great part in making it possible to solve complex problems. To solve complex problems, a massive degree of complicated math, algorithms and interacting variables appear, which makes it difficult for a normal computer to perform. That is where Quantum Computing comes into the picture to make it less timeconsuming and more accurate.

Can Run Complicated Simulations
The speed and complexity that comes along with complex simulations can only be solved by Quantum Computing systems, as they can theoretically simulate many intricate systems with thousands of variables.
Phew… see we told you; when challenges bring complexities along, a successor needs to pave its way. Now, it’s time to take another leap and understand where Quantum Computing can be used. Read on!
What Is Quantum Computing Used For?
Let's focus on a few applications of Quantum Computing. It is now possible to access cloudbased Quantum Computing systems, thanks to the various initiatives taken by corporate organizations. Also, among the countries that have already made significant investments in creating networked national research programs in quantum information and technology are the USA, China, Russia, Europe, Australia and Israel.
Yet, what is its purpose and why are governments investing in the technology?
Below, we’ve highlighted some current and potential Quantum Computing applications:

Molecular Modelling
Even with today's supercomputers, it's challenging to accurately mimic atoms and molecules. Insights into things such as how batteries work on atomic levels or how proteins interact with one another could be gained by simulating quantum physics using quantum computers. This could revolutionize the medicine and energy sectors.

Database Searching
Given how they work, Quantum Computing has the potential to store and search through enormous amounts of data considerably more quickly than conventional computers. This can lead to more accuracy and speed when searching large databases.

Cryptography
The majority of current systems of encryption might theoretically be broken by a fully functional Quantum Computing algorithm, which would be helpful for cybersecurity purposes. However, efforts to develop quantumproof cryptography are still being made. In the future, Quantum Computing may play a key role in network and cyber security systems.

Weather Forecasting
To create forecasts in meteorology, large amounts of data and many different variables are analyzed and that too in real time. Even supercomputers have difficulty predicting the weather with any degree of accuracy. Quantum Computing has the potential to increase the level of complexity with which weather phenomena can be predicted.
Not only these but also computation in the fields of financial services, logistics and scheduling, stock markets, etc. will be possibly improved by this tech. With the way this technology is accelerating, it would be fun to understand what the future beholds. Let us have a look at the same!
What Lies In The Future Of Quantum Computing?
It would not be wrong to state what we can see as the outcome of this technology is just the nascent stage and it will not stop soon. Integrating Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning will just be the start of new technological innovations. It will also bring benefits to every industry and transform the present economy to the same degree electricity did when it was discovered! Quantum Computing will help businesses go from strength to strength over the next few years – be it in the field of security, data analytics, medical even retail. We think Quantum Machine Learning will be one arena that will speed things up by applying Quantum Computing concepts to Machine Learning and enabling faster, better and more accurate insights.
To Sum Up
The breakthrough in this technology is going to be tremendous and a lot of corporate giants are already investing heavily in Quantum Computing and quantum computers. Intel, IBM, DWave Systems, Google, Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited, Lockheed Martin, etc. are just a few of the big players who already have dived into this area. It would not be wrong to say that Quantum Computing is here to stay. We’re excited, are you?
Frequently Asked Questions
What Is Quantum Computing?
Quantum Computing harnesses the principles of quantum mechanics to perform computational tasks. Unlike classical computers, which rely on binary bits (0s and 1s) for computation, quantum computers use qubits. These qubits can exist in a state of superposition, meaning they can represent both 0 and 1 simultaneously, allowing for parallel computation. Quantum Computing also utilizes entanglement, where the correlation between qubits enables synchronized calculations, leading to faster and more accurate results.
What Is The Origin Of Quantum Computing?
The concept of Quantum Computing emerged in the 1980s, with physicists exploring the potential of quantum algorithms to solve computational problems more effectively than classical methods. In subsequent years, key figures such as Richard Feynman and David Deutsch laid the groundwork for quantum computing principles. Progress continued through the 1990s and early 2000s, with the founding of DWave Systems and the development of commercial quantum computers. Today, research and development in quantum computing are ongoing, with major players like Google and IBM pushing the boundaries of this technology.
How Quantum Computing Technology Works?
Quantum Computing relies on qubits, the basic units of quantum information, which can exist in multiple states simultaneously due to superposition. Additionally, entanglement allows qubits to be correlated, facilitating synchronized calculations. These principles enable quantum computers to perform complex computations more efficiently than traditional computers. While Quantum Computing may seem complex, understanding fundamental concepts like qubits, superposition, and entanglement provides insight into its workings.
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https://www.forbes.com/sites/gilpress/2021/05/18/27milestonesinthehistoryofquantumcomputing/?sh=4287513f7b23
https://www.iasexpress.net/quantumcomputing/
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