TechDogs-"Everything About Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS)"

Manufacturing Technology

Everything About Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS)

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What if the monsterverse was a real place? You know, a place where Godzilla and King Kong would be the Alphas of their world. Sure, it may look super exciting on the screen but it will be a scary day if this verse entered the real world! In case that happens, we hope Mechagodzilla (Godzilla’s nemesis) would actually turn out to be a good guy!

We mean, technology can be weird when it inspires inventions such as the Mechagodzilla, a powerful machine that can beat the mighty Godzilla. While we are on this topic, do you ever think about how these artificially intelligent machines that use advanced computer systems can be brought to the real world? No, we’re not talking about Mechagodzilla or Optimus Prime - Cyber-Physical System, aka CPS, is what we are referring to.

If your inner engineer is wondering what Cyber-Physical Systems are and how they work, keep reading!
TechDogs-"Everything About Cyber-physical Systems (CPS)"CONSISTENT PRECISE & SCALABLE
If someone asks about our favorite car, we will say it's Tesla! The autopilot features in this impressive car are something that drives many users crazy. Yes, Tesla cars have an autonomous mode that relies on many smart systems – but the question is, how does it work? Keeping all the computer and AI jargon aside, what makes it work in the real world is a Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS).

Not just Tesla, the devices that make your homes smart, the robots that manufacture the semiconductor chips that your laptop uses for everyday objects – CPS enables industries to develop smarter and faster. Everything around us is connected to Cyber-Physical Systems. However, to find what exactly CPS means, you need to read on!

What Are Cyber-Physical Systems?

You know everything is computer-based these days. Imagine visiting the closest mall and parking your car. There is this machine that hands you the printed parking ticket and opens the barrier with a simple tap on the screen. The way this machine comes alive to interact with humans in the real world is through a Cyber-Physical System or CPS.

Cyber-Physical Systems are intelligent computer-based systems that allow computer algorithms to control the functioning and operations of a machine. What makes this system unique is how it integrates cyber, physical and computational systems together to perform different functions.

Cyber-Physical Systems are important as they enable better safety, security, reliability and efficiency in operations. CPS does it all by monitoring and controlling physical processes through computer-driven machines. #TheFutureIsHere

We know, CPS sounds like an absolute game changer! Yet, who thought of this technology in the first place? Let's find out!

How Did The Cyber-Physical Systems Come In The Picture?

To develop an autonomous machine, you need to have a Cyber-Physical System. That is something a French merchant thought about back in the 1800s when he invented a loom that used wooden cards to weave fabric designs automatically. As soon as the first calculators and computers were developed a few decades after this weaving invention, the 19th century became one revolutionary era. This time, the goal was to make the number-crunching challenge a lot less complex.

In the 19th century, things took different turns when modern computers came into the picture. We saw the first-ever computer programming language. Then, in the 1980s, IBM launched the first personal computer, the father of all laptops that we work on today! As machines innovated, these systems were becoming more integrated with programming languages that could define functions for them to run independently.

Since the launch of the personal computer, it became the foundation of every innovation that was invented. This could be anything from smartphones to smart home appliances. Almost every machine or device now requires a computer algorithm to function as per the user's needs and demands. Needless to say, when Helen Gill finally coined the term Cyber-Physical Systems in 2006, it was a game-changing moment. CPS would make the world a lot more futuristic, just the way we see it in movies!

Well, guess what? It is becoming a reality and it's possible all because of CPS. So, how does CPS actually work?

What Makes Cyber-Physical Systems Work?

TechDogs-"What Makes Cyber-Physical Systems Work?"-An Image Of A Cyber-physical System In Use
The working of a Cyber-Physical System is not a difficult concept to understand – once we break down and understand each component in detail:


Do you ever notice how some wearables can detect your health metrics? It's all because of the sensing and actuation component embedded in health trackers and fitness watches, which sense and measure various parameters such as pressure, body temperature, heart rate, etc. The work of the sensing component is to keep things working with the physical world by ensuring physical parameters fall within certain limits. When it senses parameters, it processes the information and helps the whole system make an informed decision based on the information.


Once the machine processes information about the physical world through the sensing component, it's now time to communicate the message to the parts. This is where the information communication sub-system comes in. Based on the sensor data, this component runs an algorithm that informs the machine and helps it decide what to do next.


What if the automatic switches don’t seal the pipelines in factories when the gas pressure reaches its maximum point? It can lead to danger and harm. This is the reason why CPS uses a control component that can actually control the flow of information and act on it. It can indeed choose what actions to take considering the information it receives from the physical world.


It's not like everything about CPS is fully computerized. Without human intervention, this system cannot work successfully in factories. Needless to say, CPS must have an interface for human and machine connection. The connection component has a user interface that allows users to input commands. This makes sure that the user can control and stop the system if the machine does not fulfill the purpose it is meant to do.

Well, that is how it all comes together – seems quite smart, right? Well, they’re much smarter than you think and you’ll find out why in the next section!

Why Are Cyber-Physical Systems The Way To Go?

CPS is not just about achieving better work through automated and autonomous systems. It has a bigger function in the business world. We mean, think about it: deploying a CPS can help you get real-time operational data, which saves a lot of time as this data isn't just about your preferences and ops but also your process insights and analytics. Moreover, when you combine this technology with other emerging technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing, etc., it can take your business efforts a long way. By using CPS in factories and business setting and integrating it with IoT and edge computing, you will see better performance, accuracy and reliability in operations. 

Undoubtedly, CPS can make your business world a lot better than you can imagine but what genuine benefits can you get out of it? Here's what it offers!

What To Expect From CPS?

TechDogs-"What To Expect From CPS?"-An Image Of CPS Used In A Factory
Imagine your life without an air conditioner. Now, imagine the same in summer! #Nightmare

Everywhere in the house, you would have to bear the high temperature or you would have to come up with some wacky innovation to keep things comfortable. Well, just as an AC detects the ambient temperature and senses the number of people in a room and acts on that information by either increasing or decreasing the temperature, Cyber-Physical Systems also give us a lot of autonomy and reliance. When we talk about automation, consistency and efficiency, CPS is something that follows as it functions better than humans in most scenarios. Talk about constant coffee breaks!

Any business should have a scalable infrastructure without the need for too much workforce because let's face it - it becomes chaotic. With Cyber-Physical Systems, you can bring in automation that is error-free across processes. Also, since there is no need for any human interface, you can redeploy your employees on other tasks that need more creativity or innovation.

Here comes the best part: CPS can save a lot of money as it does not need frequent repairing, and they can be redeployed for different tasks. That's the best thing any business can have! Not to mention, whenever a system is down, it can be easily kept running by deploying autonomous and offline CPS bots. #SmartTechnology

If you’re not impressed yet, here’s the future of CPS!

Hold The Torch, Here Comes The CPS Future!

TechDogs-"Hold The Torch, Here Comes The CPS Future!"-An Image Showing CPS Dog Robots
The global Cyber-Physical System market size was valued at USD 69.33 billion in 2022 and is expected to grow with a CAGR of 9.64% to reach USD 120.42 billion by 2028. Well, if it is becoming popular this fast, things are surely about to get crazy in the technology world! That's why we need to look at the future trends CPS holds for us.

You know how tiny sensors, such as humidity sensors, are becoming cheaper and easily available nowadays. This is the reason why it is being used in almost everything now, from cars, roads to even medicines that enter your body. The miniaturization of sensors and actuators will make Cyber-Physical Systems more dynamic in the coming years. Besides, when combined with Digital Twins, machine programming can actually go beyond our current imagination. Starting slow with baby steps, CPS will soon become so automated, cognitive and adaptive that its adoption will rise to levels never seen before!


Cyber-Physical Systems complete our modern and technically advanced world. Undoubtedly, without this technology, things wouldn't be as easy for industries and manufacturing businesses as they are now. Now that you know everything about Cyber-Physical Systems, the next time you use an automated machine or gadget, you know how it works!

Till then, enjoy monsters like Mechagodzilla fighting against the bad guy!

Frequently Asked Questions

What Are Cyber-Physical Systems?

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are intelligent computer-based systems designed to integrate cyber, physical, and computational components to control the functioning and operations of machines. They enable various devices to interact with the physical world, allowing for better safety, security, reliability, and efficiency in operations. CPS monitors and controls physical processes through computer-driven machines, facilitating seamless interaction between digital and physical realms.

How Did The Cyber-Physical Systems Come In The Picture?

The concept of Cyber-Physical Systems traces back to the 1800s when a French merchant invented a loom that used wooden cards to automate fabric weaving. As technology progressed, calculators and computers emerged, leading to the integration of programming languages with machines. With the advent of modern computers and the development of programming languages, CPS evolved significantly, becoming foundational in innovations such as smartphones and smart home appliances. The term "Cyber-Physical Systems" was coined by Helen Gill in 2006, marking a pivotal moment in the advancement of technology towards a more futuristic world.

What Makes Cyber-Physical Systems Work?

The functionality of Cyber-Physical Systems relies on several key components: sensing, communication, control, and connection. Sensing components detect and measure various physical parameters, such as temperature and pressure, ensuring that they fall within specified limits. Communication subsystems transmit this information to other components, which then run algorithms to make informed decisions. Control components act on the received information, determining appropriate actions based on predefined criteria. Additionally, CPS incorporates interfaces for human-machine interaction, allowing users to input commands and monitor system operations. Together, these components enable CPS to function effectively in various environments, optimizing processes and improving operational efficiency.

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